Empresas militares e de segurança privada nos mares: novos posicionamentos sobre os serviços de proteção armada contra a pirataria

Gabriel Patriarca, Cleber da Silva Lopes

Resumo


Refletindo uma responsabilidade estatal pela segurança marítima estabelecida há pelo menos um século e meio, posicionamentos contrários à proteção armada de embarcações civis foram sustentados por diversos stakeholders do transporte marítimo. Contudo, nas duas últimas décadas, o ressurgimento da pirataria e do roubo armado contra navios promoveu a prestação de serviços de proteção armada por empresas militares e de segurança privada (EMSPs), primeiro no Sudeste Asiático e depois no Chifre da África. No segundo caso, o fenômeno provocou mudanças nos posicionamentos anteriormente contrários à prática, notados pela literatura especializada de maneira fragmentada e genérica. Este artigo revisa essa literatura com o objetivo de explorar o modo como novos posicionamentos foram estabelecidos diante do maior protagonismo assumido pelas EMSPs, analisando as condições e a direção dessas mudanças. O trabalho identifica um ponto de inflexão nos posicionamentos de algumas das principais associações da indústria de transporte marítimo, do maior mercado de seguros marítimos, da Organização Marítima Internacional e dos Estados de bandeira e costeiros.

Palavras-chave


Empresas militares e de segurança privada. Segurança marítima. Pirataria marítima.

Texto completo:

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30612/rmufgd.v9i17.10943

Monções: Revista de Relações Internacionais da UFGD - ISSN 2316-8323 - Dourados - MS, Brasil.

 

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