Reflexões metodológicas sobre as Black Geographies nos Estados Unidos
Palavras-chave:palavras-chave: Geografias Negras, Black Studies, geografias da negritude, metodologias, método
O argumento central desse artigo é que o trabalho acerca das “geografias da negritude” e das Black Geographies enfatizam diferentes aspectos das experiências negras e baseia-se em diferentes metodologias para realizar suas abordagens. Concentro-me no trabalho de seis geógrafos proeminentes estadunidenses que se ocupam de questões referentes à negritude e a população negra. Evidencio que todos eles empregam uma abordagem multi-metodológica e interdisciplinar em seus estudos e que todos eles, independentemente da ênfase ou do método, trazem para o primeiro plano às experiências das populações negras. Defendo que esta abordagem colectiva e multi-metodológica empurra as fronteiras conceituais e amplia o escopo disciplinar da Geografia.
Adams J (2001) The quantitative revolution in urban geography. Urban Geography 22(6): 530–539.
Allen R (1990) Black Awakening in Capitalist America: An Analytic History. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
Barnes T and Heynen N (2011) William W. Bunge (1971). Fitzgerald: Geography of a Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Co. Progress in Human Geography 35(5): 712–715.
Bergmann L and Morrill R (2018) William Wheeler Bunge: radical geographer (1928–2013). Annals of the American Association of Geographers 108(1): 291–300.
Berman E (2019) El ‘fracaso ruinoso’ de la reforma agraria en clave de negridad: comunidades afrocampesinas y reconocimiento liberal en Montes de Maria, Colombia. Memorias 37: 117–149.
Berry B (1979) The Open Housing Question: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1966-1976. Cambridge: Ballinger.
Berry B, Goodwin C, Lake R, et al. (1976) Attitudes toward integration: the role of status in community response to social change. In: Schwartz B (ed.) The Progress in Human Geography XX(X) Changing Face of the Suburbs. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 221–264.
Birdsall S (1971) Introduction to research on Black America: prospects and preview. Southeastern Geographer 11(2): 85–89.
Bledsoe A (2017) Marronage as a past and present geography in the Americas. Southeastern Geographer 57(1): 30–50.
Bledsoe A (2019) Afro-Brazilian resistance to extractivism in the Bay of Aratu. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 109(2): 492–501.
Bressey C (2009) Cultural archaeology and historical geographies of the black presence in rural England. Journal of Rural Studies 25(4): 386–395.
Brown W (1972) Access to housing: the role of the real estate industry. Economic Geography 48(1): 66–78.
Bunge W (1974) Fitzgerald from a distance. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 64(3): 485–488.
Bunge W (2011)  Fitzgerald: Geography of a Revolution. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Cox O (1970) Caste, Class and Race: A Study in Social Dynamics. New York, NY: Modern Reader Paperbacks.
Davies S and Fowler G (1971) The disadvantaged black female household head: migrants to Indianapolis. Southeastern Geographer 11(2): 113–120.
Davis A (2016) If They Come in the Morning. New York, NY: Verso.
Deskins D (1972) Race, residence, and workplace in Detroit, 1880 to 1965. Economic Geography 48(1): 79–94.
Dudas J and Longbrake D (1971) Problems and future directions of residential integration: the local application of federally funded programs in Dade County, Florida. Southeastern Geographer 11(2): 157–168.
Florin J (1971) The diffusion of the decision to integrate: southern school desegregation, 1954-1964. Southeast ern Geographer 11(2): 139–144.
Geary D (2015) Beyond Civil Rights: The Moynihan Report and Its Legacy. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gilmore R (2002) Fatal couplings of power and difference: notes on racism and geography. The Professional Geographer 54(1): 15–24.
Gilmore R (2007) Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Goffe R (2017) Capture and abandon: social reproduction and informal land tenure in Jamaica. PhD Thesis, City University of New York, New York City.
Hartman S (2016) The dead book revisited. History of the Present: A Journal of Critical History 6(2): 208–215.
Harvey D (2009) Social Justice and the City. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Hawthorne C (2019a) Black matters are spatial matters: Black Geographies for the twenty-first century. Geography Compass 13(11): 1–13.
Hawthorne C (2019b) Making Italy: Afro-Italian entrepreneurs and the racial boundaries of citizenship. Social & Cultural Geography: 1–21.
Heynen N (2013) Marginalia of a revolution: naming popular ethnography through William W. Bunge’s. Fitzgerald. Social & Cultural Geography 14(7): 744–751.
Hill L (2004) The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Jackson G (1990) Blood in My Eye. Baltimore, MD: Black Classics Press.
King ML (1991) A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. San Francisco, CA: Harper.
Kwan MP and Schwanen T (2009) Quantitative Revolution 2: the critical (re)turn. The Professional Geographer 61(3): 283–291.
Leeuw SD and Hunt S (2018) Unsettling decolonizing geographies. Geography Compass 12(7): e12376.
Livingstone D (1993) The Geographical Tradition: Episodes in the History of a Contested Enterprise. Oxford:Blackwell.
Marable M (2015) How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America: Problems in Race, Political Economy, and Society. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.
Massey D (1995) Spatial Divisions of Labor: Social Structures and the Geography of Production. New York, NY: Routledge.
McCutcheon P (2019) Fannie Lou Hamer’s freedom farms and black agrarian geographies. Antipode 51(1): 207–224.
McKittrick K (2006) Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
McKittrick K (2011) On plantations, prisons, and a black sense of place. Social & Cultural Geography 12(8): 947–963.
McKittrick K (2013) Plantation futures. Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism 17(3): 1–15.
McKittrick K (2014) Mathematics black life. The Black Scholar 44(2): 16–28. 17
McKittrick K (2015) Diachronic loops/deadweight tonnage/bad made measure. Cultural Geographies 23(1): 3–18.
McKittrick K (2016) Rebellion/invention/groove. Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism 20(1): 79–91.
McKittrick K (2017) Commentary: worn out. Southeastern Geographer 57(1): 96–100.
McKittrick K (2019) Living just enough for the city/volume VI/black methodology. Keynote presented at the Feminist Exploration of Urban Futures International Conference, York University, 28 September. Available at: https://youtu.be/T8UVkub6u3k (accessed 18 March 2020).
McKittrick K and Woods C (2007) No one knows the mysteries at the bottom of the ocean. In: McKittrick K and Woods C (eds) Black Geographies and the Politics of Place. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, pp.1–13.
Meché B (2020) Memories of an imperial city: race, gender, and Birmingham, Alabama. Antipode 52(2): 475–495.
Meyer D (1970) Spatial Variation of Black Urban House- holds. Research Paper 129. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Mollett S (2011) Racial narratives: Miskito and Colono land struggles in the Honduran Mosquitia. Cultural Geographies 18(1): 43–62.
Morgan J (2016) Accounting for ‘the most excruciating torment’: gender, slavery, and trans-Atlantic passages. History of the Present 6(2): 184–207.
Morrill R and Donaldson O (1972) Geographical perspectives on the history of Black America. Economic Geography 48(1): 1–23.
Moynihan D (1965) The Moynihan Report: The Negro Family–The Case for National Action. New York, NY: Cosimo Reports.
Newton H (2009) Revolutionary Suicide. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Pulido L (2002) Reflections on a white discipline. The Professional Geographer 54(1): 42–49.
Pulido L (2016) Flint, environmental racism, and racial capitalism. Capitalism Nature Socialism 27(3): 1–16.
Pulido L (2018) Geographies of race and ethnicity III: settler colonialism and nonnative people of color. Progress in Human Geography 42(2): 309–318.
Robinson C (2000) Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.18
Robinson C and Morse C (1999) Capitalism, Marxism, and the black radical tradition: an interview with Cedric Robinson. Perspectives on Anarchist Theory 3(1): 1–8.
Rodney W (1981) A History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881-1905. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rodney W (2011) How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.
Rose H (1969) Social Processes in the City: Race and Urban Residential Choice (Resource Paper No. 6), Commission on College Geography. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers, pp. 1–34.
Rose H (1970) The development of an urban subsystem: the case of the negro ghetto. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 60(1): 1–17.
Rose H (1971) The Black Ghetto; A Spatial Behavioral Perspective. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Rose H (1978) The geography of despair. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68(4): 453–464.
Seale B (1991) Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.
Smith N (2008) Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
The Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute FieldNotes (1969) Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute.
The Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute Field Notes (1970) Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute. The Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute Field Notes (1971) Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute.
Thompson J, Raphael L, Cannon S, et al. (1967) A very stern discipline: an interview with Ralph Ellison. Harper’s Magazine 76–95.
Ture K and Hamilton C (1992) Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
Umoja AO (2013) We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Vasudevan P (2019) An intimate inventory of race and waste. Antipode. DOI: 10.1111/anti.12501.
Wheeler J (2001) Assessing the role of spatial analysis in urban geography in the 1960s. Urban Geography 22(6): 549–558.
Progress in Human Geography XX(X) Williams B (2018) ‘That we may live’: pesticides, plantations, and environmental racism in the United States South. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space 1(1–2): 243–267.
Williams E (1994) Capitalism & Slavery. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Wilson B (1977) Black housing opportunities in Birmingham, Alabama. Southeastern Geographer 17(1): 49–57.
Wilson B (1985) Racial segregation trends in Birmingham, Alabama. Southeastern Geographer 25(1): 30–43.
Wilson B (1989) Birmingham segregation: Is it a product of black-white socioeconomic differences? Southeastern Geographer 29(2): 92–105.
Wilson B (1992) Structural imperatives behind racial change in Birmingham, Alabama. Antipode 24(3): 171–202.
Wilson B (1995) From antebellum to Fordism: the role of the south and local regimes in US capitalist development. Southeastern Geographer 35(1): 75–95.
Wilson B (2000a) America’s Johannesburg: Industrialization and Racial Transformation in Birmingham. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Wilson B (2000b) Race and Place in Birmingham: The Civil Rights and Neighborhood Movements. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Wilson B (2002) Critically understanding race-connected practices: a reading of W. E. B. Du Bois and Richard Wright. The Professional Geographer 54(1): 31–41.
Wilson B (2007) Social justice and neoliberal discourse. Southeastern Geographer 47(1): 97–100.
Winston C (2019) ‘How to Lose the Hounds’: Tracing the Relevance of Marronage for Contemporary Anti-Police Struggles. Dissertation, New York, NY: City University of New York.
Woods C (1998) Development Arrested: The Blues and Plantation Power in the Mississippi Delta. New York, NY: Verso.
Woods C (2017) Development Drowned and Reborn: The Blues and Bourbon Restorations in Post-Katrina New Orleans. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Wright WJ (2018) As above, so below: anti-black violence as environmental racism. Antipode. DOI: 10.1111/anti.12425.
Wright WJ (2020) The morphology of marronage. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 110: 1134–1149.
Yeats M (2001) Yesterday as tomorrow’s song: the contribution of the 1960s ‘Chicago school’ to urban geography. Urban Geography 22(6): 514–529.
LicençaAutores que publicam nesta revista concordam com os seguintes termos:
Autores mantêm os direitos autorais e concedem à revista o direito de primeira publicação, com o trabalho simultaneamente licenciado sob a Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 3.0 Brasil que permitindo o compartilhamento do trabalho com reconhecimento da autoria do trabalho e publicação inicial nesta revista.
Autores têm autorização para assumir contratos adicionais separadamente, para distribuição não exclusiva da versão do trabalho publicada nesta revista (ex.: publicar em repositório institucional ou como capítulo de livro), com reconhecimento de autoria e publicação inicial nesta revista.
Autores têm permissão e são estimulados a publicar e distribuir seu trabalho online (ex.: em repositórios institucionais ou na sua página pessoal) a qualquer ponto antes ou durante o processo editorial, já que isso pode gerar alterações produtivas, bem como aumentar o impacto e a citação do trabalho publicado (Veja O Efeito do Acesso Livre em http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html.)
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyrights and grant the Journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 3.0 Brasil that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this Journal.
Authors are permitted to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the Journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or in a book chapter), with an acknowledgement of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to publish and share their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as increase the impact and citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access - http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html.)